Observing pedestrian-vehicle traffic conflicts in school zones to evaluate the effectiveness of road safety interventions and reduce injuries in Ghana, Vietnam, and Mexico, 2019-2021

Daily more than 3,000 children are injured or killed on the road, often along the school route. Road traffic crashes and resulting injuries are preventable. More can be done to reduce injuries and save lives. Traffic Conflict Techniques (TCTs) are simple methods of collecting observational data to evaluate the effectiveness of road safety interventions through counting and analyzing traffic conflicts. A TCT Toolkit was developed and piloted to analyze pedestrian-vehicle traffic conflicts in school zones in low- and middle-income countries.


AIP Foundation and Chevron: Transforming Lives of Students and Communities on the Roads in China 2011 – 2020

In response to the growing safety needs of China’s most vulnerable road users—and in support of the global movement to save lives on the world’s roads—Chevron partnered with international road safety non-profit organization, AIP Foundation, in 2011 to launch the Walk Wise program in the Kaizhou District of Chongqing Municipality.

Walk Wise has worked to build healthier communities through its nine-year journey of change and empowerment. Combining the influence of comprehensive road safety education, impactful investments in infrastructure, public awareness campaigns, and empowerment of its local partners, Walk Wise has changed the perceptions and attitudes of communities to save lives. Here is the story of how AIP Foundation and Chevron worked together to save one life at a time on the roads in China near the Chuandongbei (CDB) natural gas project.

Walk Wise Lookback Report 2011 – 2020

MCH1 – Specification for Head Protection for Motorcyclists

The MCH1 – Specification for Head Protection for Motorcyclists (‘MCH1’) is intended to provide a technically feasible standard that can be implemented in regions that currently do not have an existing motorcycle helmet standard and do not possess the technical expertise to develop their own motorcycle helmet test procedures. MCH1 builds upon the knowledge base developed by those countries that currently have motorcycle helmet standards

Head First: A Case Study of Vietnam’s Motorcycle Campaign

Published to coincide with the 10th anniversary of Vietnam’s 2007 introduction of a universal helmet law, ‘Head First’ details the decade-long campaign to secure the legislations, and the decade-long implementation effort since. Written and researched by AIP Foundation, the leading injury prevention NGO in SE Asia, this case study will be essential reading for any country or campaigner seeking lasting road safety change.

A Comprehensive Approach to Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Prevention: Experiences from the Field in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uganda

Motorcyclists account for 23% of global road traffic deaths and over half of fatalities in countries where motorcycles are the dominant means of transport. Wearing a helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by as much as 69% and death by 42%; however, both child and adult helmet use are low in many countries where motorcycles are a primary mode of transportation. In response to the need to increase helmet use by all drivers and their passengers, the Global Helmet Vaccine Initiative (GHVI) was established to increase helmet use in three countries where a substantial portion of road users are motorcyclists and where helmet use is low. The GHVI approach includes five strategies to increase helmet use: targeted programs, helmet access, public awareness, institutional policies, and monitoring and evaluation. The application of GHVI to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Uganda resulted in four key lessons learned. First, motorcyclists are more likely to wear helmets when helmet use is mandated and enforced. Second, programs targeted to at-risk motorcyclists, such as child passengers, combined with improved awareness among the broader population, can result in greater public support needed to encourage action by decision-makers. Third, for broad population-level change, using multiple strategies in tandem can be more effective than using a single strategy alone. Lastly, the successful expansion of GHVI into Cambodia and Uganda has been hindered by the lack of helmet accessibility and affordability, a core component contributing to its success in Vietnam. This paper will review the development of the GHVI five-pillar approach in Vietnam, subsequent efforts to implement the model in Cambodia and Uganda, and lessons learned from these applications to protect motorcycle drivers and their adult and child passengers from injury.

Evaluation of an integrated multisector campaign to increase child helmet use in Vietnam

This study presents child helmet use before, during and after implementing the Vietnamese National Child Helmet Action Plan (NCHAP) and evaluates its effect on child helmet use. The NCHAP, an integrated multisector campaign, incorporated a wide-scale public awareness campaign, school-based interventions, increased police patrolling and enforcement, and capacity building and support to relevant government departments in target provinces.

Investing to Save Lives: An Impact Investing Case Study for Preventing Road Trauma

‘Investing to Save Lives’ make a compelling case for strategic investment in preventative road safety measures. The case studies, developed by Social Finance UK and Impact Strategist, are drawn from road safety programs in Australia and Cambodia. They detail astronomical health costs resulting from road trauma in high income countries, the hidden costs borne by families in low income countries with limited access to health services, insurance protection or welfare, and the immediate and long term human and financial benefits of front-loading investment in comprehensive road safety interventions.

Helmets for Kids: evaluation of a school-based helmet intervention in Cambodia

This paper analyses helmet use before and after implementing Helmets for Kids, a school-based helmet distribution and road safety program in Cambodia.

Four trials to crack the helmet quandary

Thailand has the second highest rate of road deaths per population in the world. Of those who die on Thailand’s roads, 73% are motorcyclists. Despite a legal mandate, less than half of motorcyclists, and only 7% of children, wear helmets. To identify possible models to increase child helmet use, the Asia Injury Prevention (AIP) Foundation conducted four small- scale trials: (1) a helmet bank, (2) police enforcement, (3) petrol station retail, and (4) taxi stands. Trials 1, 2, and 4 resulted in increased child helmet use, but each had instructive challenges and strengths. Trial 3 presented a number of challenges leading to the conclusion that child helmet retail at petrol stations is not viable.

But I Am Normal: Perceptions of Safe Driving Norms in Vietnam.

This paper aims to elucidate perceptions of safe driving and social norms in relation to driving motorbikes in the Vietnamese context.

Developing an integrated campaign to address child helmet use in Vietnam: a case study

Road crashes are one of the leading causes of death and injury for children in Vietnam. From September 2010 to April 2014, AIP Foundation, with support from The Atlantic Philanthropies and partners, implemented an integrated campaign to increase the helmet wearing rate of children in three major cities of Vietnam: Hanoi, Danang, and Ho Chi Minh City. AIP Foundation prioritized an evidence-based approach to designing the campaign, which consisted of three components: a wide-scale public awareness campaign, enhanced police enforcement, and partnership and capacity building. This case study details the process of developing and implementing an integrated campaign and shares some of the lessons learned from this process.

From Zero to Ninety Percent: Evaluation of the Helmets for Kids School-based Initiative in Cambodia

In Cambodia, helmet wearing rates among children are low as motorcycle passengers and bicyclists are not legally required to wear helmets. Previous work from the Cambodia Helmet Vaccine Initiative (CHVI) revealed that barriers to helmet use include lack of helmet access, belief that crash risk depends on trip length, and helmet comfort. Helmets for Kids (HFK) is a CHVI intervention aimed at increasing correct and consistent child helmet use by addressing these barriers.

Motorcycle helmet attitudes, behaviours, and beliefs among Cambodians

Motorcycle fatalities are increasing at an alarming rate in many South-East Asian countries, including Cambodia. Through brief face-to-face roadside interviews in Phnom Penh and four other Cambodian provinces, this article assesses Cambodian motorcyclists’ attitudes, behaviours and beliefs related to motorcycle helmets. Out of 1016 motorcyclists interviewed, 50% were drivers, 40% were older passengers and 10% were child passengers. More drivers (50%) reported consistently wearing helmets, compared with older passengers (14%). Saving their life in the event of a crash was the impetus for drivers and older passengers to wear a helmet (96% and 98%, respectively). The top barriers to helmet use were: (1) ‘depends on where I drive,’ (2) ‘I forget’ and (3) ‘inconvenient’ or ‘uncomfortable’. These descriptive findings were instrumental in shaping the Cambodian Helmet Vaccine Initiative passenger campaign to reduce the motorcycle-related injuries and fatalities to support the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety.

The Passenger Helmet Story

In 2010, AIP Foundation using its six years of experience in Cambodia, joined forces with the government, private sector, and non-governmental organizations to launch the Cambodia Helmet Vaccine Initiative (CHVI), based on AIP Foundation’s successful interventions in Vietnam. CHVI’s approach relies on five pillars: (1) public awareness education; (2) school-based programs; (3) technical assistance, advocacy and capacity building; (4) research, monitoring, and evaluation; and (5) helmet provision. CHVI’s main objective is to increase passenger helmet use in the three target areas (Phnom Penh, Kandal, and Kampong Speu) to 60% by the end of 2015.